The purpose of this article is to protect the municipal water supply system from pollution or contamination due to cross connection, to prohibit and eliminate all cross connections within the municipal water supply system, and to provide for the maintenance of a continuing effective cross connection control program and thus protect the public health.

The City Manager shall be responsible for effectively conducting the cross connection control program of the municipal water supply system. If in the judgment of the City Manager an approved backflow prevention device is required, the City Manager or his authorized agent shall give notice in writing to the customer to install the proper device at the customer’s expense. Failure to comply shall constitute grounds for discontinuing or denying water service to said customer until the device is properly installed.

For the purposes of this article, the following words and phrases shall mean:

(a)   Agency means the City of Abilene, Kansas.

(b)   Air gap means the unobstructed vertical distance at least twice the diameter of the supply line and no less than one inch, through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from any pipe or faucet supplying water to a tank, plumbing fixture or other device and the flood level rim of the receptacle.

(c)   Approved device means devices tested and accepted by a recognized testing laboratory approved by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment and the City of Abilene, Kansas.

(d)   Backflow means the flow of water or other substances into the distribution system of a potable supply of water from any source other than its intended source. Back siphonage is one type of backflow.

(e)   Backflow preventer means a device or means to prevent backflow.

(f)   Back siphonage means the flowing back of contaminated or polluted substances from a plumbing fixture or any vessel or source into the potable water supply system due to negative pressure in said system.

(g)   Contaminant means any substance that upon entering the potable water supply would render it a danger to the health or life of the consumer.

(h)   Cross connection means any physical connection or arrangement between two (2) otherwise separate piping systems, one of which contains potable water and the other which contains water or any substance of unknown or questionable quality whereby there may be flow from one system to the other.

(i)    Double check valve assembly means any device consisting of two(2) internally loaded, soft seated, check valves with positive shut-off valves on both upstream and downstream ends, and properly located test ports.

(j)    Dual check valve means any device consisting of two(2) internally loaded, soft seated, check valves. This device does not contain test ports and is acceptable for use only at the meter of residential customers.

(k)   Free water surface means a water surface at atmospheric pressure.

(l)    Flood level rim means the edge of the receptacle from which water overflows.

(m)  Frost-proof closet means a hopper with no water in the bowl and with the trap and water supply control valve located below frost line.

(n)   KDHE means the Kansas Department of Health and Environment.

(o)   Plumbing means the practice, materials and fixtures used in the installation, maintenance, extension and alteration of all piping, fixtures, appliances and appurtenances.

(p)   Pollution means the presence of any foreign substance, organic, inorganic or biological, in water, which tends to degrade its quality so as to constitute a hazard or impair the usefulness or quality of the water to a degree which does not create an actual hazard to the public health, but which does adversely affect the water.

(q)   Reduced pressure zone backflow preventer means an assembly of two independently acting soft seated approved check valves together with a hydraulically operating mechanically independent deferential pressure relief valve located between the check valve. The unit shall contain properly located test cocks and resilient seated shut-off valves at each end of the assembly. To be approved these assemblies must be accessible for inspection and testing and be installed in an above ground location where no part of the assembly will be submerged.

(r)    Tester means a trained technician certified in the testing and repair of preventers.

(s)   Vacuum means any absolute pressure less than that exerted by the atmosphere.

(t)    Vacuum breaker means a device that permits entrance of air into the water supply distribution line to prevent back siphonage.

(u)   Water, potable means water free from impurities in an amount sufficient to cause disease or harmful physiological effects, the quality of which conforms to KDHE requirements for public water supplies.

(v)   Water, non-potable means water that is not safe for human consumption or that is of questionable potability.

The public potable water supply system shall be designed, installed and maintained in such a manner as to prevent contamination from non-potable sources through cross connections or any piping connection to the system.

Cross connections are prohibited, specifically including, but not limited to the following:

(a)   Bidets

(b)   Operating, dissecting, embalming and mortuary tables or similar equipment. In such installations the hose used for water supply shall terminate at least twelve (12) inches away from every point of the table or its attachments

(c)   Pumps for non-potable substances

(d)   Building drains, sewers or vent systems

(e)   Commercial buildings or industrial plants, manufacturing or otherwise using polluting or contaminating substances except when and where, as approved by the city manager, suitable backflow preventers are properly installed, tested and maintained to insure proper operation on a continuing basis.

Interconnections between two or more public water supplies shall be permitted only with the approval of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment.

Connections between a private water supply and the public potable water supply are prohibited.

 Potable water connections to boiler feed water systems in which boiler water conditioning chemicals are or can be introduced shall be made through an air gap or through a reduced pressure zone principle backflow preventer located in the potable line before the point where such chemicals may be introduced.

Except when potable water provided for a refrigeration condenser or cooling jacket is entirely outside the piping or tank containing a toxic refrigerant, the inlet connection shall be provided with an approved backflow preventer. Heat exchangers used to heat water for potable use shall be of the double wall type.

The type of protective device required shall be determined by the degree of hazard which exists as follows:

(a)   Premises having auxiliary water supply shall protect the public system by either an approved air gap or an approved reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly.

(b)   Premises having water or substances which would be non-hazardous to the health and well being of the consumers shall protect the public system with no less than an approved double check valve assembly.

(c)   Premises where material dangerous to health is handled in a manner which creates an actual or potential hazard shall protect the public system by an approved air gap or an approved reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly.

(d)   Premises where cross connections are uncontrolled shall protect the public water supply by installing an approved air gap or an approved reduced pressure principle backflow prevention device at the service connection.

(e)   Premises where, because of security requirements or other prohibitions, it is impossible to complete in-plant cross connection inspection, the public system shall be protected by an approved air gap or an approved reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly.

(f)   Premises which may fall into one or more of the above mentioned categories may be, but are not limited to the following:

(1)   Automobile or other vehicle repair, painting cleaning, washing or other service facilities

(2)   Beverage bottling plants

(3)   Hotels, motels, apartments, public or private buildings, or other structures or facilities having actual cross connections

(4)   Chemical manufacturing, handling or processing plant or sales

(5)   Dairies and cold storage facilities

(6)   Film or photography processing laboratories

(7)   Fire sprinkler systems

(8)   Hospitals, medical centers, morgues, mortuaries, autopsy facilities, medical clinics, or nursing and convalescent homes

(9)   Irrigation or lawn watering systems

(10) Laundries and dry cleaners

(11) Metal cleaning, processing or fabricating plants

(12) Oil and gas production, storage or transmission facilities

(13) Packing or food processing plants

(14) Paper and paper product plants

(15) Power plants

(16) Radioactive materials plants or handling facilities

(17) Restaurants, cafes, caterers, cafeterias, delicatessens or other food preparation facilities

(18) Restrictive access or classified facilities

(19) Rubber processing plants

(20) Sand, gravel, concrete and asphalt plants

(21) Schools and colleges

(22) Sewage and storm drainage facilities and reclaimed water systems

(23) Solar heating systems

(24) Temporary service connections such as fire hydrants, air valves, water blow-offs and other outlets

Approved devices shall be installed at all fixtures and equipment where backflow or backsiphonage may occur and where a minimum air gap between the potable water outlet and the fixture or equipment flood-level rim cannot be maintained. Backflow and backsiphonage devices of all types shall be in accessible location. installation in pits or other locations not properly drained shall be prohibited, except that dual check valves may be installed in the meter box.

Water connections not subject to back pressure shall contain a vacuum breaker on the discharge side of the last valve on the line serving the fixture or equipment. A list of some conditions requiring protection are as follows:

(a)   Aspirators & ejectors. Critical level at least 6 inches above flood level of receptacle served

(b)   Commercial dish washing. Critical level at least 6 inches above flood level of the equipment installed on both hot and cold water supply lines

(c)   Garbage can cleaning. Critical level at least 6 inches above flood level of the equipment installed on both hot and cold water supply lines

(d)   Hose outlets. Critical level at least 6 inches above highest point on hose line

(e)   Commercial laundry. Critical level at least 6 inches above flood level of equipment installed on both hot and cold water supply line.

(f)   Lawn sprinkler system.           Critical level at least 6 inches above highest sprinkler head or discharge outlet

(g)   Steam tables. Critical level at least 6 inches above flood level rim or line

(h)   Tanks and vats. Critical level at least 6 inches above flood level rim or line

(i)    Trough urinals. Critical level at least 30 inches above perforated flush pipe

(j)    Flush tanks. Equipment with approved ballcock, installed according to manufacturer’s instructions served

(k)   Hose bibs. Critical level at least 6 inches above flood level of receptacle

Where a potable water connection is made to a line, fixture, tank, vat, pump or other equipment with a hazard of backflow or backsiphonage where the water cannot be installed, the city manager may require the use of an approved reduced pressure principle backflow preventer. The following partial list shows cross connections subject to back pressure situations which may use approved reduced pressure principle backflow preventer devices:

(a)   Chemical line

(b)   Individual water supplies

(c)   Industrial process water line

(d)   Tanks and vats - bottom inlets

(e)   Pumps

(f)   Steam lines

(g)   Swimming pools

(h)   Pressure tanks

(i)    Certain hose bibs

Water connections where an actual or potential backsiphonage hazard exists, may in lieu of devices specified above be provided with a barometric loop. Barometric loops shall proceed the point of connection.

Dual check valves may be installed at the meter of residential customers. These valves shall be inspected and repaired not less frequently than every fifth year. Dual check valves shall be installed only in situations where the city manager is assured that only noncontaminating substances are subject to backflow into the potable system.

Atmospheric vacuum breakers shall be installed with the critical level at least 6 inches above the floor rim of the fixture they serve and on the discharge side of the last control valve to the fixture. No shut-off valve or faucet shall be installed beyond the atmospheric vacuum breakers. Pressure vacuum breakers shall be installed with the critical level at least twelve (12) inches above the flood rim but may have control valves downstream from the vacuum breaker. For closed equipment or vessels such as pressure sterilizers, the top of the vessel shall be considered the flood level rim and a check valve shall be installed on the discharge side of the pressure vacuum breaker.

It shall be the responsibility of the premise owner to maintain all backflow preventers and vacuum breakers within the building or on the premises in good working order and to make certain that no piping to other arrangements have been installed for the purpose of bypassing the backflow devices. Testing and repair of these devices shall be made by qualified technicians who have completed a KDHE approved training course and have passed qualified written examinations. The city shall certify said device testers who have met the required qualifications.

The city shall inspect all backflow preventer installations to assure proper installation and will assist in the development of appropriate testing and overhaul schedules for such devices. Testing intervals shall not exceed one (1) year, except as noted for residential meter installed dual check valves.

Businesses are required to submit plans to the City Engineer within six (6) months after notification by the city that the water service or operation requires modification to comply, and shall be allowed six (6) months after submittal of plans to bring the operations into compliance.

The City Manager shall notify the owner, or authorized agent of the owner of a building, of such violation and what corrective measures are necessary to correct the violation. The City Manager shall set a reasonable time for the owner or owner’s agent to correct the violation. If the owner fails to correct the violation within the specified time, the city shall terminate delivery of water to the building or premises until such time as the violation is satisfactorily corrected.